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Operating Systems Course: Lab01

Laboratory number 01

Exercise 01: Management of files and directories

Part 01

Produce the following tree of directories in your home directory:

      |           |          |
     src         bin       test
      |                      |
   ----------            -----------
   |        |            |         |
  include  lib         script   results

Part 02

  • Download the file: lab01e01in.txt
  • Copy the file in the directory src, then, using the directory src as the current directory, copy the file in the directories test, script, and results (to this extent use only absolute paths).
  • Check the existence of the files previously created, and check their rights.
  • Use the commands more, less and cat to verify the content of the files.
  • Use the command diff to verify that all the files have the same content.
  • Without changing the current (working) directory, cancel using relative paths all the files previously created.
  • Repeat the same sequence of operations starting from father directory of src, i.e., osEx01.

Part 03

Executing all the commands from the root of your user (i.e., /home/username), do the following:

  • Copy all the directory tree named osEx01 into a directory tree named osEx01backup, by using the command cp to copy individual files and the command mkdir for directories.
  • Cancel all the content of osEx01 by using the command rm to remove individual files and the command rmdir for directories“.
  • Repeat both the copy and the cancel operations by using the recursive versions of the commands cp and rm.

Part 04

Check what they do and for what the following commands are used:

  • pwd
  • wc
  • history

For any problem, remember that you can use the following command to obtain an online help manual for a specific command:

  • man <command>

Exercise 02: Permissions management

Verify and reply to the following questions:

  • the username and the group to which you belong.
    Is it possible to modify them?
  • the position of your home directory within the file system hierarchy of the system you are using
  • the structure of your /home directory (e.g., its subdirectories, etc.)
  • the rights of reading and writing on the various directories of the file system. Is it possible to modify access rights to your home directory?
  • what happens if reading or execution rights are eliminated for a directory. Use both the octal notation (e.g., “654”) and the one based on characters (e.g., ”+uw-gx“) to modify the rights.

How is it possible to modify in the same way the access rights to all the files and directories of a directory tree (for example, to eliminate the read right to all, user, group, and other of the directory osEx01backup)?

  • Download the file lab01e03in.txt
  • In the same directory where the file is stored, you have to create:
    • A copy of the file with the name lab01e03in.copy
    • A hard-link to the file with name lab01e03in.hl
    • A soft-link to the file with name
  • View files information with the command ls -l
    • What can you see in the second column of the output?
    • Why don't all the files have the same size?
  • Check that the content of the three created files is the same as the original file using the diff command.
    • Why does the file have a different size than the others, but it has the same content?
  • Open and modify the content of the file lab01e03in.txt with a text editor of your choice
    • How do you expect information related to the size and the date of last modification of the file will be changed? Why?
    • Verify your answer using the command ls -l
    • What changes are expected regarding the content of the files? Why?
    • Check the response by comparing the three files created with the original one. Use again the diff command.
  • Rename the file lab01e03in.txt in lab01e03in.backup
    • What can you see now from the output of the ls -l command?
    • Compare the content of the file lab01e03in.backup with the content of the files lab01e03in.hl and Why in the second case do you obtain an error message?
  • Create a new empty file named lab01e03in.txt
    • What is the current expected content of the file Why?
    • Check with the command cat

The command
touch <nomefile>
allows to update date and time of the last modification performed on a file.
In the case the specified file does not exist, it creates an empty file with that name.

Exercise 04: C programs and compilation

Perform the following tasks using:

  • an editor of your choice (e.g., vim, emacs, gedit, etc.)
  • the gcc compiler (alternatively use an IDE of your choice, e.g., CodeBlocks).

Part 01

Write a C language program that, using the ANSI C I/O primitives (fgetc/fputc, fscanf/fprint,fget/fputs of your choice), is able to copy a text file to an identical file.
The name of the two files is received on the command line, so that the program can be executed using a command that specifies three parameters:
nameExcutable sourceFile destinationFile

Part 02

Compile the source files using gcc

  • Eliminate possible warnings.
  • Try to compile the file by directly generating the executable, or first the object code and then the executable.
  • Run the program using the lab01e01in.txt file as a test file.
  • Verify the program using as program arguments both relative paths and absolute paths to specify input and output files.
  • Verify the correct copy of the files (i.e., sourceFile and destinationFile must be identic) using the shell command diff.

Part 03

How does the written program behave if you try to copy a binary file?

  • Use the object file or the executable file of the program written to perform a check.
  • Test its correct functioning using the diff command.

Part 04

Change the program using

  • ANSI C fread and fwrite functions (optional) and then
  • open, read, write, and close POSIX system calls.
  • Test its correct functioning using the diff command.

Exercise 05: Compilation and makefile

  • Compile the program of the previous exercise using a Makefile containing only the compilation target.
  • Edit the previous Makefile by adding the install target, which allows to
    1. create a directory, sibling of the work directory and named bin
    2. move the created executable in this directory
  • Edit the previous Makefile by adding the clean target, which removes the object file in the current directory
  • Edit the previous Makefile by adding the distclean target that calls the clean target and deletes the bin directory (which is the sibling of the current directory) and all its content
  • Edit the previous Makefile using variables to specify the compiler, the compilation options, and the file name.

Take as reference the example analyzed in classroom: Makefile4

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